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 - Sharing Informal Course Info from participants - Comparing Contending Theories in International Politics 2003

Present and explain Alexander Wendt's explanation of international systemic change.
How do the following authors explain the same phenomenon: Morghenthau, Waltz, Kaplan, Gilpin and Keohane?

# Author key concepts Account for Change related key words short hand
1 Wendt A. Change = Change in culture of identity. - Structure change  - Who they are and what they want. "Anarchy is what states make of it."
B. Int'l Structure & Relationship with agents &  3 Assumptions:
  1. Social rather than strict material = a. Ideational, b. material resources-capacity with meaning; c. practice 
  2.Structure shapes identity and interests of states - Tendency in international sys. Structuration Theory - mutually constituted and co-determined.
   3.States act on shared knowledge and expectations
C. Evolution of Systems [and Evolutionary moded? identity formation:]
   1. "Hobbsian"  = Individual - enemy - Conflict
   2. "Lockian" = Rival -Competition - Mutual Recognition of Soverginty
   3. "Kantian" = Friend, Collective Security,  Cooperation
D. Identity Formation, Causal Theory of identity formation
  1.  4 Variables in all systems; Interdependence, Common Fate, Homogeneity, Self Restraint. Self Restraint most important for "self-binding" actions without expectation of reciprocity.
  2.  Macro & Micro Level are Important, 1st meeting, Mac Supervenes Micro
  3. Identity through repeated interaction and Frequency of  instances [what is tipping point?]
Change in Culture Culture, Macro & Micro Important, Mac Supervenes Micro Cul, MaSMi
2 Morgenthau System Change, Change in Balance of Power between states.|
Assumes Bop natural phenomenon that exists under 3 certain conditions:
– Power parity among major As [Structure] ,
– ideology of  b-of-p,
- adopt by majors of b-of-p foreign policy [Normative-Behavior]
(whether b-of-p causes change or stability) weakest against the potential hegemon, Multipolar System. Anarchic; Stability & change come from multipolar b-of-p, in int'l system of anarchy w/ autonomous actors, conflict , five or more main actors. All the actors are autonomous.
2. int'l system is regulated by b-of-p, states to prevent hegemony by aligning w/ weaker side (constrained by environments, opportunities for expansion) Conclude:
• causes of change & stability = relationship betw/ structure and actor:[motivation & purpose];
• change & stability are both structural AND normative; 
• reason for agent to seek change = opportunity for expansion or increased compensation.;
• BOP is in effect for states with different internal ideologies. • BoP is main Ideology, Structure and Normative system;   followed by most of the actors.
• similar to Wendt’s f “frequency” num occurrences determine when system change - macro
Balance of Power; Change in Structure & Actors; Motivation, [Frequency of interaction?] BoP, struct & Actors, Freq. BoP, SA, F
3 Waltz Balance of Power, Bi-polar
Waltz: start – defines change & stability as follows
• Change = change of distribution of capabilities [just material] in the system (w/ or w/out system-wide war)
•Stability = absence of system-wide war and the maintenance of distribution of capabilities
• 0 Sum?.
Under the conditions of:  1. Inequality;   2. smallness of major actors = Prefers 2 main
3. bipolar most stable (contrary to Morgenthau) b/c two major powers must have commitment to b-of-p (or it won't work –declare war). Less chance for misunderstanding - actors have learned more about each other.[central focus]
2. only ideological commitment that is important [far outweigh] [like Morgenthau or G?]
b-of-p not only stable but provides deterrence (avoidance of system-wide war).  constrains behavior of actors
Distribution of Material Capacity Material Capacity MCap
4  Gilpin Form of Control
factors that account expansion of political power as a challenger to hegemon
Change in system from hegemonic to bipolar, etc.: [G critic W because W BP need commit of 2 major]
Explanation of systemic change:
[5 rules :  see page 10
1. int’l sys in equilibrium – no state sees profit in change-no state is trying to expand
• dynamic equilibrium (homeostatic), cyclical  old -hegemonic decline - time  new
2. will attempt change if expect benefit exceed expect cost
3. Will seek change in system [via pol, eccon or territ] until cost exceed benefit - States change system through expansion until marginal cost too high
• hegemons expand up to point where MC = MB.   costs high (external, internal, and environmental reasons).
4. maintenance costs of staus Quo will eventual exceed capacity to Hedgemon [H1] -maintaining status quo rises faster than ability of hegemon to pay)
5. If disequilibrium not resolved – will change with new power [H2]
•   w/ disequilibrium, hegemon three options. :
       1. increase resources devoted to int'l commitments
       2. reduce commitments
       3. rejuvenate your technology (make it cheaper to meet commitments)
• unable to resolve disequilibrium, uneven growth causing other states to gain, leading to hegemonic war. Demise of hegemons has to do with overextension (s-curve) – mixes microeconomics w/ internal factors hegemonic ascent
• G focus systemic change = structural change system (forms of control of system can produce a wide range of systems).  3 types of systems: hegemonic, etc. bipolar & b-of-p (systems classified by form of control).   [change rules – change system]
• Hegemonic power creates and maintains - particular governance of the system
Key concept = expansion (territorial & economic); Explanatory mechanism = extent of expansion -- governed by ratio of marginal benefit (MB) vs. marginal costs (MC) (for everyone) increasingly, territorial expansion is obsolete.
• states act to expand interests -- perception (Keohane – perception not automatic!) is important factor in foreign policy. Factors in perception: 1. environment (tech, econ, military);   2. systemic structures [External];  3. domestic factors (personalities, etc.)
-- combine to produce financial crisis for the hegemon (while other powers are growing faster:
• s-curve and their free-rider status). 
-- eventual means of solving disequilibrium is hegemonic war (involving all major powers) & result will be new distribution of power; start of new cycle: expansion (MC = MB), decline (w/ MC > MB), war;-- law of uneven growth is what saves theory (but where does it come from?)
 relative, not absolute – other countries become more powerful than hegemon or just more powerful?
Systemic change:  Change from  H1 to H2;  H1 to bigger H1expand., H1 to H3, or     H1 no change adjust using methods mentioned above
Expansion of Power, Law of uneven growth Expansion following 5 rules = "S" Curve Xpand-S
5 Keohane  Keohane implies - going forward to more cooperation - Wendt doesn’t predetermine outcome? – But recent articles on world state implies final process???
important measure of change is the system of governance
 int'l regime (defined as norms, rules & institutions govern the int'l system,
therefore govern state behavior (manifested in institutions informed by rules, both formal and informal
Keohane: regime theory (structures + processes)
            Int'l system changes if the rules change: [could increase Stability or change]
[Rules  - increase transparency, give more info on which to base decisions, set expectations etc]r
Existence of rules a natural consequence of int'l cooperation
        whether system is hegemonic, bipolar, etc.  level of cooperation determines change
        Cooperation betw/
        hegemon & leading states –        collection of the most powerful states (powerful across the board or in different issue areas);  Stability of system depends on:
        staying power of int'l institutions & rules independent of interests of powerful states
        may change because of technological innovations - make exist power arrangements obsolete
Keohane implies   - going  forward to more cooperation  - Wendt doesn’t predetermine outcome?
 – But recent  articles on world state implies final process???                                                                                                                                                              
Increased cooperation, Rules, Norms and International Institutions, Change in System of Governance Cooperation Coop
6 Kaplan Kaplan: it's all a mixture of structure & behavior/motivation (essential rules, transformative rules)
Kaplan's theory is based on macrosystem analysis – 6 systems, (2 actual, 4 hypothetical)
 Int'l system as system, not collection of states (NOT behavior)  Models include Morgenthau & Waltz (some empirical support for b-of-p & bipolar)
 In b-of-p system, things you can do to maintain stability are specific to that system (different for different systems)
5 types of variables including 2 sets of rule [see page 388 [systems approach to int’l politics] 1. Essential rules = state the behavior necessary to maintain equilibrium [preserve stability in all] the systems. 2. Transformation rules: State the changes that occur in the system as inputs across the boundary of the system [that differ from those required from equilibrium] move the system toward instability or stability of a new system. 3. Actor classification variables [nation-state, alliance, international organization], 4. capacity and 5. information variables/[these last three probably not necessary for change question]
 Need to rethink this in light of above rules: IF states engage in them, will produce stability (similar to Morgenthau) ex: organize against the hegemon (b-of-p, not bipolar) –This is example of essential or transformation rules?? System changes when individuals not motivated [or not replaced] to perform the roles and functions required to maintain system equilibrium. Kaplan p.384
Structure & Motivation, Essential Rules, Motivation of Actors Essential Rules & lack of motivation of actors rul-Mot