|04||Ofutay Kodjoe as interpreted from related quotes||Some believe High Politics = Security and Low politics = economics. Whose "High"?. In this case state would become a security production machine||Power is the ability to effect Outcomes, this is a Non coercive definition of power Pok, 25-feb-2003. Power as capacity is different from power as influence.|
|02.a||Main||Neo-Liberalism/Institutional Liberalism [neoliberal instuitionalism]||Characterizations: 3 interpretations: interdependence among actors, international society and anarchy
- reinterpretation of liberalism that posits even anarchic International system, states will cooperate because of their continuous actions
|For Neoliberal institutionalists, cooperation emerges because for actors having continuous interactions with each other it is in the self interest to cooperate. Institutions may affect the possibilities of cooperation but do not guarantee it. -ERI-KM p65
-Security is essential and institutions help make security possible
- Institutions provide a guaranteed framework of interactions.
- Democricies are pacific toward each other because norms and culture inhibit the leaders.; leaders hear from a multiplicity of voices. Also transnational and international institutions bind democracies together that dense networks which constrain behavior.
Possible to learn rules of Reciprocity "shadow of the future" - Behavior can be learned to make negotiating smoother"
Regiems create "issue linkages" and "agenda setting"
|Power and interdependence
Interdependent system in which the actors are both sensitive [affected by} and vulnerable to [suffering costly effects from} the actions of others. Power not fungable
|Because it is in self interest to co-operate. Institutions provide the framework for cooperative interactions-ERI-KM p285
Bounded Rationality, Shadow of future
|cooperation emerges because for actors having continuous interactions with each other it is in the self interest to cooperate. Institutions may affect the possibilities of cooperation but do not guarantee it.||because for actors having continuous interactions with each other it is in the self interest to cooperate. Security is essential and institutions help make security possible|
|01||Main||Realism - [according to who?] see subsections||Unregulated competition of states, each state's interests are paramount, success is defined as preserving and strengthening each state -Waltz -ToIP p. 117 minimum = seek own survival, maximum = seek universal domination.||Power = Ability to Coerce -Waltz. Balance of power theory claims to explain the results of states actions under given conditions, and those results may not be foreshadowed in any actors' motives or be constrained as objectives in their policies.
Based on definition of power as coercive - only holds in conflict situations,
For realist, force is most important part of power instrument
Some believe High Politics = Security and Low politics = economics. Whose "High"?. In this case state would become a security production machine
Discussion of foreign policy - in language of power and interests rather than ideals and norms.NAIC Keohane p.9
|Power balancing routine characteristic of states. -Waltz -ToIP p. 117 Definitions of why - differ. "Balance of Power politics prevails when two requirements are met: order is anarchic and it is populated by units wishing to survive."p.121||For realist power is measured in terms of "Capability" to predict who will win.||All states act alike -, Mo||Balance of Power is a theory about results produced by the uncoordinated actions of states. Explains the constraints which confine all states. This in turn provides many clues to the expected reactions of states.||National Interest defined as objective interest of states.
- unitary one defined in terms of power-ERI-KM p67
|Assumes balance of power will lead to stability. At same time different realist predict bi-polar and multipolar process..||Minimal requirements or conditions of Theory: 1)States are key units of action, 2) States seek power either as end in itself or means to other ends, 3) States behave in ways that re largely rational and therefore comprehensible to outsiders,||.Normative Theory which recommends certain types of behaviors for states||.||.||Self-interested states compete constantly for power or security||States||Economics and especially military power||Hans Margenthau, Kenneth Waltz||Waltz, Theory of International Politics Mearsheimer, Back to the Future: Instability in Europe after the Cold War" (International Security, 1990)-[IROWMT]||Resurgence of overt great power competition||Does Not account for International Change -where sources of change in economy or domestic.
Lack of ability to explain events in the international arena.
Does not explain something which was going to happen anyway - needs example.
Can not explain co-operation.
Basic problem is assumptions on which Theory is built.
Requires assumption of conflict to explain power.
For Realist Foreign Policy Analysis is predicated on outside threat. Never based on objectives that state might have. No sense of foreign policy except in sense of stopping someone else.
Balance of Power will not necessarily produce stability. Based on perceptions of decision makers so is not automatic. Power can be in terms of relative gains or absolute gains on one over another.
Advice not consistent with reality
|OWMT = International Relations: ONE WORLD, MANY THEORIES , By: Walt, Stephen M., Foreign Policy, 00157228, Spring98, Issue 110 covers p29, 17p||.||.||.|
|02||Main||Liberalism||Perspective based on assumption of the innate goodness of the individual and the value of political institutions-ERI-KM p63||Believes the individual is basically good
-for classical Liberals, cooperation emerges from man's establishing and reforming institutions that permit cooperative interactions and prohibit coercive actions.-ERI-KM p65
- International Pol Economy
-Relation between individual, society, state, market: When individuals act rationally, markets are created to produce, distribute, and consume goods,: markets function best when free of government interference.
- Relation between domestic and international society - International wealth is maximized with free exchange of goods and services; on the basis of comparative advantage, int'l economic gains -ERI-KM p186
|.||Key actors = States, Non Gov't Groups, International Organizations.,substate actors, multinational corporations
- Individuals Act in Rational ways to maximize their self-interest
|Value freedom, especially free trade and ideas, potential for mutual gain IR3g-JG-p.9
-Seeking long-term mutual gains more rational than short term national gains
|many national interests
- International institutions coordinate actions to manage power, 1. collective security, 2. Arms control and disarmament
-Gain wealth in absolute terms more important than gain power in relation to other countries
|.No need for radical change, constant shifting of actors are involved in new relationships-ERI-KM p85
reform of the status quo through an evolutionary process of incremental change - IR3g-JG-p.9
|.||No Constraints, ongoing interactions -ERI-KM p85
war seen as tragic mistake to be prevented minimised by int'l agreements and institutions IR3g-JG-p.9
|.||.||Concern for power overridden by economic/ political considerations (desire for prosperity, commitment to liberal values)||States||Varies (international institutions, economic exchange, promotion of democracy)||Michael Doyle, Robert Keohane||Keohane, After Hegemony, Fukuyama, "The End of History?" (National Interest 1989.||Increased Cooperation as liberal values, free markets, and international institutions spread.||Tends to ignore the role of power||QWMT||.||.||.|
|03||Main||Constructivist Theories -Theory of Int'l Politics which works on both the micro and macro level||Develop a theory of international system as social constructivism. Account for identity and intersts, show how they come to problemitize identity of states. Bring Order and predictability to world politics.||What: a theory of International Politics which works on both a micro and macro level. An approach to understand states identity, how they develop and change.
1. Human beings and their organization are purposefull actors whose actions help to produce or transform the society in which they live.
2. Society is made up of social relationships between actors.
3. Properties of actors and of social structures are both relevent to explanation of social behavior.
Structuration Theory = Solution to agent structure problem = Mutual Constituted or co-determined entities.
Structure and agents co-determine each other Wednt. P. 350
Belief in Structuration theory is based on Scientific Realism (effects based on unobservables and __________). Therfore when trying to explain international Politics agent and structure have equal causal capacity Have to give equal weight to agent and structure.
|Power is both material and discursive [ideas, culture--]. "Deep structure of power politics,..in international relations"AWSMI Wednt p106.||.||Mutual Constituted or co-determined entities. Relationship between what actors do and who they are.||"Deep structure of power politics,..in international relations"AWSMI Wednt p106. International System is anarchic, socially constructed affected by state behavior, identity and interest. Shared knowledge produced by agents and states affects the system which also incorporates structure and culture as well as anarchy. Motivation & capacity of states is considered. Structure is meaning given to distribution of capabilities for states. Structure is more ideational than material. Ordering principle depends on intersubjectivity -Wednt p.85. Meaning of int'l system is socially constructed. Can take on the nature of Competition (Locke); individual (Hobbs); or collective (Kant) security system.||Nt'l Interest related to identity. System has a culture, takes many forms, ideology, norms, threats and these condition the identity of actors. Create a comon knowledge about what the actors believe about each other. Subjective and intersubjective.||Change based on internal and external.||1. Human beings and their organization are purposefull actors whose actions help to produce or transform the society in which they live.
2. Society is made up of social relationships between actors.
3. Properties of actors and those of social structures are both relevent to explanation of social behavior.
|.||.||.||State behavior shaped by elite beliefs, collective norms, and social identities||Individuals (especially elites)||Ideas and Discourse||Alexander Wendt, John Ruggie||Wendt, "Anarchy Is What States Make of It" (International Organization, 1992); Koslowski & Kratochwil, "Understanding Changes in International Politics" (International Organization, 1994)||Agnostic because it cannot predict the content of ideas||Better at describing the past than anticipating the future||QWMT||.||.||.|
|00||Class Defined - proposed [p] or validated [v] fields, Main =core theories for discussion||Theory Name -Heading Field - sample||Purpose of Theory - definition - What is it trying to do||Note||Definition of power||How measure success of Theory - Capacity to describe, explain and predict? See also "How to test"||Motivation of Actors, - Actors Interest - National Interest ,||Discussion of Foreign relations [objective of Foreign Relations,]||National Interest - not sure of this field||What factors account for Change and Stability in the system [How stable is it],||What necessary for this Theory to be true, What are minimal requirements or conditions of the Theory, Assumptions||Prescriptions/ Predictions||Reliability||Literature Defined||Main Theoretical Proposition||Main Units of Analysis||Main Instruments||Modern Theorists||Representative Modern Works||Post-Cold War Prediction||Main Limitation||Reference for the data entered - who said it or generally assumed. Agreed by OK class?||link to other or related sources||Sort Categories for Grouping Theories||How test the Theory, Beware assumptions which can not be explained by "real life" especially if the statement or prediction purports to be reliable in "real life"||Core concern||Major approach||Outlook on Global Perspective||Central Concept||Sources|
|00.a||.||Generic Theory||1.Theories are collections or sets of Laws Pertaining to a particular Behavior or phenomenon. 2. For K.Waltz better = Theories Explain Laws. Laws are "facts of Observation", Theories are "speculative processes introduced to explain them"||1..Theories contain at least one theoretical assumption. Since not factual - can ask if useful.2. Must be evaluated in terms of what claim to explain. 3. As general explanatory system, cannot account for particularities.-Waltz -ToIP p. 118||NA.= Not Applicable for Power||Is the Theory internally constant and will it tell us things we would not know in its absence. Depict a domain. Displays its organization & connections among parts, compare with observations,||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||Are expected behaviors and outcomes repeatedly found where the conditions contemplated by the theory obtain? -Waltz -ToIP p. 123 Choose hard case situations, for example, in which parties have strong reasons to behave counter to predictions.|
|00.b||.||Generic Political Theory||.Theories at one level of generality can not answer questions about matters at a different level of generality.. -Waltz -ToIP p. 121||Beware of Theory's assumptions which do not allow for explanation in real life.||.||.||.||.||.||.||..||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.|
|00.c||.||Generic International Relations Theory||.Bounded Realm or domain, law like regulations within realm, explaining the observed regularities -Waltz -ToIP p. 116||.Using a International Relations system theory to explain state behavior is a problem.||.Various including: Balance of Power, Cooperating, situational [see differences below]||.||.||Expected behavior is similar not identical. Theory of foreign policy not predict detailed content of policy - but lead to different expectations about tendencies and styles of different countries policies -Waltz -ToIP p. 122||To explain the expected differences in national responses, a theory would have to show how different internal structures of states affect their external policies and actions||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||.||..||.||.|
|99 test of access data page vi intranet||99 test of access data page vi intranet||zztest access via intranet for data page|
|02.rk||Main||Neo-Liberal -Realism-Modified Structural Hybrid - Robert O Keohane -multidimensional approach=Institutional Liberalism||incorporate several analytical frameworks or research programs. Includes balance of Power where useful to understand. NAIC Keohane, p3||- should incorporate structural realism = has clarity and parsimony, the range of phenomena it encompasses is limited.
- needs better theories of domestic politics, decision making and information processing - so gap between external and internal environments can be bridged in systematic way. NAIC Keohane, P.191
- Modified Structural analysis can provide a context within which an analysis of cognition is politically more meaningful.
- knowing maxims of int'l rela theory, must know enough history to place them in context - then useful guides for interpreting events..
- Necessary to remain skeptical of int'l theory and maintain critical analysis. NAIC Keohane, p 3
Complex Interdependence Theory
The term 'complex interdependence' was developed by Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye and refers to the various, complex transnational connections (interdependencies) between states and societies. Interdependence theorists noted that such relations, particularly economic ones, were increasing; while the use of military force and power balancing were decreasing (but remained important). Reflecting on these developments, they argued that the decline of military force as a policy tool and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence should increase the probability of cooperation among states. The complex interdependence framework can be seen as an attempt to synthesize elements of realist and liberal thought. Finally, anticipating problems of cheating and relative gains raised by realists, interdependence theorists introduced the concept of 'regimes' to mitigate anarchy and facilitate cooperation. Here, we can see an obvious connection to neo-liberal institutionalism. See Keohane, R. and J. Nye. 1977. Power and Interdependence: World Politics in Transition. Little-Brown, Boston. (2nd edition,1989). From http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm
Encompasses those theories which argue that international institutions play an important role in coordinating international cooperation. Proponents begin with the same assumptions used by realists, except for the following: where realists assume that states focus on relative gains and the potential for conflict, neoliberal institutionalists assume that states concentrate on absolute gains and the prospects for cooperation. Neoliberal institutionalists believe that the potential for conflict is overstated by realists and suggest that there are countervailing forces, such as repeated interactions, that propel states toward cooperation. They regard cheating as the greatest threat to cooperation and anarchy as the lack of organization to enforce rules against cheating. Institutions are described by neoliberals as 'persistent and connected sets of rules (formal or informal) that prescribe behavioral roles, constrain activity, and shape expectations' (Keohane, R. 'International Institutions: Two Approaches', in International Studies Quarterly 32, 1988). Robert Keohane is the scholar most closely identified with neoliberal institutionalism. Http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm
Interdependence always carries with it costs - since interdependence restricts autonomy. Can not specify if benefits exceed the costs - depends on values of actors and nature of relationships. Interdependance has two dimensions : sensitivity [degrees of responsiveness within a policy framework] and vulnerability [actors likelihood to suffer costs imposed by external events even after policies have been altered. PIWP Keohane and Nye, 1989 p.9-13 as noted in CTIR, Dougherty & Pfaltzgaff 1997, pp 102-103T ===========
see also note on Neofunctionalism as a theory of regional integration emphasizes the political calculation and pay-off to elites who agree to collaborate in the performance of certain tasks (Viotti, P. and M. Kauppi, (eds.). 1987. International Relations Theory. Macmillan Publishing Company, New York).Http://www.irtheory.com/know.htm
|States can cooperate, Institutions play a role. neoliberal institutionalists assume that states concentrate on absolute gains||the decline of military force as a policy tool and the increase in economic and other forms of interdependence should increase the probability of cooperation among states.||knowing int'l theory only applies under certain conditions.- if maxim|
|01.0m||Main||Realism [ according to Morgenthau = Classical?||States engage in balancing power which is likely to produce stability. Effect is that Int'l system can produce stability in certain circumstances. States are Autonomous and in conflict||1.Political realism believes that politics, like society in general, is governed by objective laws that have their roots in human nature. 2.international politics -- concept of interest defined in terms of power.
3. Realism assumes that its key concept of interest defined as power is an objective category which is universally valid, but it does not endow that concept with a meaning that is fixed once and for all.
4. Realism maintains that universal moral principles cannot be applied to the actions of states in their abstract universal formulation, but that they must be filtered through the concrete circumstances of time and place.
5. Political realism refuses to identify the moral aspirations of a particular nation with the moral laws that govern the universe.
6. "difference" =political realist maintains the autonomy of the political sphere, as the economist, the lawyer, the moralist maintain theirs. Political realist asks: "How does this policy affect the power of the nation?" p16 = For only by deceiving himself about the nature of politics and the role he plays on the political scene is man able to live contentedly as a political animal with himself and his fellow men.
Morgenthau,Brief Edition 1993 p.4-16
|Ability to coerce, ability to control others, ) 0 sum quality to power. Power is and end in itself. BOP = situation of equilibrium as weak as any situation in which power struggles take place.||Impossible to measure power, can observe capabilities. States [imperialism] seek to enhance; Maintain [Status-Quo] or Show [Prestige]||Basic assumption that States seek power. Because of human nature is power seeking - this motivation transferred to states.||Purpose of Foreign Policy is to pursue the national interest||National Interest and power is the same. Purpose of State is to eliminate insecurity?
Interest defined in terms of power.Morgenthau,Brief Edition 1993 p.5
|support status quo or bipolar||Relies on objective national interests; relied on assumption of power, rationality a and balance of power. NAIC Keohane p.9||came to view - Give up crusading and defend own boundaries||Assumes states act like individuals with "will to power".
Blames a small number of behavior traits for conflict while ignoring more benign aspects of human nature which point in the other direction. NAIC Keohane p.11 j
Failure to explain varieties in warfare over time and space. If human nature is constant why shouldn't warfare be constant? NAIC Keohane p.11
Separates the spheres of economics, religious-moral from politics.
No theory of peaceful changes. Put whatever faith he had in diplomacy NAIC Keohane, p 203
failed to distinguish between power as a resource and power as ability to influence other's behavior.
BOP = situation of equilibrium as well as any situation in which power struggles take place. double meaning lead to difficulties for Morgenthau
|01.0w||Main||Neo-Realism, Structural Realism [Waltz brand]||Structure of International system has great influence on states,. System composed of Structure and interacting units. Ordering Principle, Functional Character of Units, Distribution capabilities; Balance of Power;||Structural Constraints explain why methods are repeatedly used despite differences in states which use them. System Level Forces are at work. Structure is distinct form level of interacting units
Power = Ability to Coerce -Waltz. Balance of power theory claims to explain the results of states actions under given conditions, and those results may not be foreshadowed in any actors' motives or be constrained as objectives in their policies.
To make point Waltz notes: A. difference in level between states and system and B. Compares to macro and micro level of economics "Different domains but structurally similar"
- Structure selects, those who play by rules are likely to win. Structure determines type of player likely to prosper.
Sovereignty - Decides for itself how to cope with Internal & External Problems, Functions to be performed are alike, capacity is different
Distribution of Capabilities.
Power is calculated by comparison capacity across units. Type of order among states;
Structural T gain plausibility if similarities of behavior are observed across realms that are different in substance but similar in structure, and differences in behavior are observed where realms are similar in substance but different in structure
called by some as "technical; realism"
Called by Keohane "Explanation through an examination on the structure of International system"
|Ability to affect others more.- Power balancing routine characteristic of states. -Waltz -ToIP p. 117
"Balance of Power politics prevails when two requirements are met: order is anarchic and it is populated by units wishing to survive."p.121
|Success defined as preserving and strengthening the state, is the ultimate test of policy (p.117);
gain plausibility if similarities of behavior are observed across realms that are different in substance but similar in structure, or [see note field
|[states act alike] Unregulated competition of states, each state's interests are paramount, success is defined as preserving and strengthening each state -Waltz -ToIP p. 117 minimum = seek own survival, maximum = seek universal domination.||Expected behavior is similar not identical. Theory of foreign policy not predict detailed content of policy - but lead to different expectations about tendencies and styles of different countries policies -Waltz -ToIP p. 122||"States do not willingly place themselves in situations of increased dependence. In a self-help system, considerations of security subordinate economic gain to political interest."(112)
Depends on mesh of actors an their behavior??
|Bi - Polar is most stable -Waltz; There are transformation rules, Not all systems change the same way, Structure and norms of the system - Kaplan.||Assuming Rationality -NRaIC Keohane p.167, Bop requires two conditions: order is anarchic, and units wish to survive. Walsh Prerequisite to other aims: States seek to ensure survival (vary- conquer to be left alone) p,90. Most have to act as expect||The range of expectations arise from looking a the type of order that prevails and the distribution of capabilities within that order||Assumes states are Unitary actors, seek preservation as minimum, use internal or external methods to achieve aims, self help system, Balance of Power assumes if disrupted will be restore. System serves as compensating device, constraining conditions||States = "like units", In crunch States make the rules under which other actors operate. Few states die. States are units whose structure forms the structure of int'l pol systems. Vary in wealth, size, Power, form Same: Tasks but not ability to perf||Structure affects behavior within the system but does so indirectly: socialization and competition -actors.||Kenneth Waltz?||- Does not account for variations in States non-rational behavior. Supports status quo as main assumption. View of power resources implied by overall structure theory is over aggregated, exaggerating extent power is like money. Need more multi dimensional approach. NAIC Keohane p.191
- Need mote attention to internal - external interactions. Does not take note of different structural development in different historical periods., weather states came early or late in development process within system. More emphasis need for non state actors NAIC Keohane, p.193
- Need to qualify severely "states seek Power" since not most important in all cases. Has to take note of rise of international rules and procedures and obedience to them by states. Note international structure effects self-interest. What is rational for states depends on institutional context of states and underlying power realities. Need to take note of Complex interdependence - when it is difficult to use conventional power for certain purposes. NAIC Keohane, p197
- POWER = Does not separate power-as-outcome properly from power-as -resources NAIC Keohane, p202
Ignores the specification of functions of units - since assumes all units perform the same functions - therefore differentiation of units drops out